Types of study design are a basis or the methods that are used to gathered information and data analysis on the variables in a specific subject; there are many types of study designs that have advantages and some disadvantages or have some limitations.
After clearing the concept and the concept of the study designs, now let’s discuss some common types of study design
It is a powerful research methods study design based on the collected information from different studies; it is also describing as a quantitative study design; it is an excellent approach to evident medicine. Meta-analysis can diagnose the hidden risk related to the latest treatment and “medical interventions.”
The systematic review is a summary of the clinical literature and a critical evaluation of thee the studies that prominent the scientific issues. A systematic review is used to summarize the outcomes of all existing scientific studies and the controlled trials and has massive details of the efficiency of the medical interventions. It also includes in the meta-analysis.
The systematic review has one disadvantage it fails to collect, and detailed information can lead to flawed suppositions
Randomized controlled trial (RCT):
A randomized controlled trial, also called a clinical trial, randomly allocates to two or more groups, that defines as controlled experiments that give an expert chance to examine the different interventions randomly.
Placebo (controlled trials):
Placebo-Controlled trails are an essential feature of the randomized controlled trials, are most beneficial in scientific research methods; the control trials are used when an expert is not sure about the best specific treatment for the patients; as we have discussed earlier, phase II uses the controlled trails.
The pragmatic trial is divided into two categories, Pragmatic and other is explanatory trials. The pragmatic trials are used to measure the effectiveness of the scientific involvements in actual scenarios. The explanatory trials usually measure the efficiency, the ideal case, it tests ensure that treatment works.
Cross over trials are like randomized trials, it is also allocating the subject randomly, but there is one difference that the subjects receive rapidly like a Crisscross; the cross over trials is a repeated design of measuring.
This is also a randomized design, but the picking occurs before the agreement. The consent is attained only from the subject assigned to the experimental treatment. The Zelen’s designs treatments should be illness severe and hostile.
Comprehensive cohort studies:
This study design includes subjects with the agreement of the randomized, the subject’s who insist a treatment; this is very useful in scenarios; when the subject refused for the randomization, it gives freedom to the patients, like in the case of cancer.
Nonrandomized clinical trials:
In this study design, the participants have the authority to decide the group; these trials are used mainly to give answers and to provide the information and evidence.
Types of study design when the researcher and the subjects both know which conduct the issue obtains. The open trial or “open-label trial” is beneficial in phase I trials; it gives the awareness to the patients that this would be the experimental base treatment.
This study design is informative; in the case-control studies, the individual suffering from the disease compared to the healthy person, the case-control reviews are less costly than the cohort studies.
Nested case-control studies:
The nested case-control study design is robust; these studies can be directed within a cohort study; it reduces cost and time compared to the full cohort design. The nested cohort study is beneficial for the research methods aspects.